great mullein habitat

[50] In Canada, it is most common in the Maritime Provinces as well as southern Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia, with scattered populations in between. Since Huber-Morath's groups are not taxonomical, Mürbeck's treatment is the most current one available, as no study has yet sought to apply genetic or molecular data extensively to the genus. Names: Aarons Rod, Great Mullein. [61] Additionally, deer and elk eat the leaves. Great Mullein is found growing on hedge-banks, by roadsides and on waste ground, most often on gravel, sand or chalk. [5], It has been introduced throughout the temperate world, and is established as a weed in Australia, New Zealand, tropical Asia, La Réunion, North America, Hawaii, Chile, Hispaniola and Argentina. Names: Aarons Rod, Great Mullein. [69] The plant's ability to host both pests and beneficials makes it potentially useful to maintain stable populations of insects used for biological control in other cultures, like Campylomma verbasci and Dicyphus hesperus (Miridae), a predator of whiteflies. Family: Scrophulariaceae family of plants (as in Snapdragon). Great mullein is a commonly used domestic herbal remedy, valued for its efficacy in the treatment of pectoral complaints[4]. There are several Mullein species, but Great Mullein truly deserves its common name because it can grow to a height of two metres, although little more than half that height is more usual. Habitat: Native to Britain, Dec 06. In northern Europe, it grows from sea level up to 1,850 m altitude, while in China it grows at 1,400–3,200 m altitude. [31][75] Glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide effects in vitro were isolated from flowers. Common mullein. Viola odorata Violaceae Names: Violet. [19][51], Great mullein most frequently grows as a colonist of bare and disturbed soil, usually on sandy or chalky ones. [80][31][75], Mullein may be cultivated as an ornamental plant. Some valuable constituents contained in Mullein are Coumarin and Hesperidin, they exhibit many healing abilities. [7] All occur in Eurasia,[7] and three, V. × kerneri Fritsch, V. × pterocaulon Franch. [1], A species of mullein in the family Scrophulariaceae native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia, The lectotypification is usually attributed to Arthur Huber-Morath (1971). [10], Phytochemicals in Verbascum thapsus flowers and leaves include saponins, polysaccharides, mucilage, flavonoids, tannins, iridoid and lignin glycosides, and essential oils. asperulum (Scrophulariaceae) two new records for the flora of Iran", "List of alien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild (as of October 27, 2004)", "Common Mullein—the Roadside Torch Parade", "An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding the Biology of Invasions: Local Adaptation and General-Purpose Genotypes in the Weed Verbascum thapsus", "Habitat requirements of central European bees and the problems of partial habitats", "Maintenance Behavior of the American Goldfinch", "Numbers and types of arthropods overwintering on common mullein, Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), in a central Washington fruit-growing region", "HOSTS – a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants", JLindquist.com: webpage with pictures of tall specimens, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Verbascum_thapsus&oldid=999782674, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Articles with Swedish-language sources (sv), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left, This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 23:04. Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia.[1]. crassifolium, the hairiness is less dense and often absent from the upper part of the anthers, while lower leaves are hardly decurrent and have longer petioles. A survey of town and country walls in Easter Ross. Terms of use - Privacy policy - Disable cookies - External links policy. The individual yellow flowers are typically 25mm across but, unlike foxgloves, the lower flowers do not necessarily open first. Burning is ineffective, as it only creates new bare areas for seedlings to occupy. The flowers are gathered between July & September during dry weather, & dried in shade or with heat no higher than 40 deg.C. Verbascum subsect. Alias' : mullein, great mullein, wooly mullein, flannel plant, velvet plant, lungwort, feltwort, Jacob’s staff, torchplant. [19] Flowers are self-fecundating and protogynous (with female parts maturing first),[19] and will self-pollinate if they have not been pollinated by insects during the day. [80], Roman soldiers are said to have dipped the plant stalks in grease for use as torches. Verbascum Thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia. The flowers are small, and form dense, yellow clusters around the top of the spike. [3][4] The leaves are large, up to 50 cm long. [9] It is now found commonly in all the states. Collection: The leaves and flowers are gathered in the spring, in March and April. Fasciculata (or sect. Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties. Mullein (Verbascum thapsus ) also known as great mullein, is a dramatic biennial herb of the Scrophulariaceae or figwort family. It also hosts many insects, some of which can be harmful to other plants. Latin Name : Verbascum thapsus. [2] It has been used to make dyes and torches. [9][10][12] Visitors include halictid bees and hoverflies. [70][71] A number of pest Lepidoptera species, including the stalk borer (Papaipema nebris) and gray hairstreak (Strymon melinus), also use V. thapsus as a host plant. Mullein or "mullein leaf" often refers to the leaves of Verbascum thapsus, the great or common mullein, which is frequently used in herbal medicine. [53], Oil from the flowers was used against catarrhs, colics, earaches, frostbite, eczema and other external conditions. Habitat : Alien, naturalized, biennial herb. "Mullein" itself derives from the French word for "soft". In North America, South America and Australia Verbascum thapsus is an introduced alien species. HABITAT IN THE UNITED STATES Common mullein can be found where mean annual precipitation is greater than 3-6 inches and the growing season lasts for a minimum of 140 days. Those active ingredients include unique compounds, such as verbascose and verbasterol, as well as coumarins, ascorbic acid, saponins, and other antioxidants.For this reason, this herb can be ingested, smoked or applied topically in different forms … Habitat: Native to Britain, Europe and parts of Asia. [17][20] Introduced American populations show much less variation. [67], Other insects commonly found on great mullein feed exclusively on Verbascum species in general or V. thapsus in particular. Eaton went so far as to write: "When botanists are so infatuated with wild speculation, as to tell us the mullein was introduced, they give our youngest pupils occasion to sneer at their teachers. [66], Despite not being an agricultural weed in itself, it hosts a number of insects and diseases, including both pests and beneficial insects. Mullein is drought-resistant and grows easily from seed. Verbascum thapsus (great mullein or common mullein) is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia. [30][31][32] In North America, "common mullein" is used[33][34] while western United States residents commonly refer to mullein as "cowboy toilet paper". [58] Other bird species have been reported to consume the leaves (Hawaiian goose)[59] or flowers (palila),[60] or to use the plant as a source when foraging for insects (white-headed woodpecker). A recent revision led its author to maintain V. giganteum but sink V. crassifolium into synonymy. [80] Native Americans and American colonists lined their shoes with leaves from the plant to keep out the cold. The plant’s grey-green, oval leaves are covered in woolly hairs and appear in whorls around its tall stems. These make the plant a potential reservoir for overwintering pests. … The yellow, candle-like flower spikes of Great mullein can reach up to 2m in height, making this an impressive plant of dry and grassy ground, including gardens, waste ground and roadside verges. A white-flowered form, V. thapsus f. candicans, is known to occur. [1] It is a minor problem for most agricultural crops, since it is not a competitive species, being intolerant of shade from other plants and unable to survive tilling. Verbascum thapsus has a wide native range including Europe, northern Africa and Asia, from the Azores and Canary Islands east to western China, north to the British Isles, Scandinavia and Siberia, and south to the Himalayas. Other cultures use the leaves as wicks. First, it grows a rosette with large, light-coloured, wax-like leaves close to the ground. The specific epithet thapsus means 'from Thapsus', an ancient (now ruined) village near Carthage, in Sicily, and so as you might expect this wildflower is indeed very common on Sicily. This wildflower is also found in most parts of mainland Europe including the Mediterranean region, where it thrives despite the long dry summers, and in northern Africa and parts of Asia. Great Mullein has been used as an alternative medicine for centuries, and in many countries throughout the world, the value of Great Mullein as a proven medicinal herb is now backed by scientific evidence. They include mullein thrips (Haplothrips verbasci),[67] Gymnaetron tetrum (whose larva consume the seeds) and the mullein moth (Cucullia verbasci). [24], The plant is also parent to several hybrids (see table). ), the Great Mullein, is a widely distributed plant, being found all over Europe and in temperate Asia as far as the Himalayas, and in North America is exceedingly abundant as a naturalized weed in the eastern States. Dry with care. [31][75] The Zuni people, however, use the plant in poultices of powdered root applied to sores, rashes and skin infections. [12] Goats and chickens have also been proposed to control mullein. The specific epithet thapsus had been first used by Theophrastus (as Θάψος, Thapsos)[14] for an unspecified herb from the Ancient Greek settlement of Thapsos, near modern Syracuse, Sicily,[14][15] though it is often assimilated to the ancient Tunisian city of Thapsus. [5][43][44] In northern Europe, it grows from sea level up to 1,850 m altitude,[4] while in China it grows at 1,400–3,200 m altitude. The flowering period of V. thapsus lasts from June to August in most of its range, extending to September or October in warmer climates. Of these, the most common is V. × semialbum Chaub. [78] The German Commission E describes uses of the plant for respiratory infections. While it can also grow in areas where some vegetation already exists, growth of the rosettes on bare soil is four to seven times more rapid. The stalk has alternate … [62], Seed of Verbascum thapsus has been recorded from part of the Cromer Forest Bed series and at West Wittering in Sussex from some parts of the Ipswichian interglacial layers. While year of flowering and size are linked to the environment, most other characteristics appear to be genetic. [31] Topical application of various V. thapsus-based preparations was recommended for the treatment of warts,[77] boils, carbuncles, hemorrhoids, and chilblains, amongst others. Those that germinate in autumn produce plants that overwinter if they are large enough, while rosettes less than 15 cm (6 in) across die in winter. In Ireland mullein was widely cultivated as a remedy for tuberculosis. The plant produces a shallow taproot. [35][36], In the 19th century it had well over 40 different common names in English alone. Seed dispersion requires the stem to be moved by wind or animal movement; 75% of the seeds fall within 1 m of the parent plant, and 93% fall within 5 m.[10], Megachilid bees of the genus Anthidium use the hair (amongst that of various woolly plants) in making their nests. crassifolium were originally described as species. The case of mistaken identification of the rare neophyte Verbascum densiflorum, Dense-flowered Mullein, ... Great Mullein, in Fife. The leaves and the flowers are anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, … Photos and Pictures . [37] Vernacular names include innumerable references to the plant's hairiness: "woolly mullein", "velvet mullein" or "blanket mullein",[32][38] "beggar's blanket", "Moses' blanket", "poor man's blanket", "Our Lady's blanket" or "old man's blanket",[31][34][39] and "feltwort", and so on ("flannel" is another common generic name). Mullein Habitat- Where to Find Mullein. Its analgesic properties are also widely reported, and there have been cough mixtures based on mulleins. [56] Because of this, and because the plant is an extremely prolific seed bearer (each plant produces hundreds of capsules, each containing up to 700+ seeds,[19] with a total up to 180,000[9][10] or 240,000[12] seeds), it remains in the soil seed bank for extended periods of time, and can sprout from apparently bare ground,[10] or shortly after forest fires long after previous plants have died. [5][6] This cover is particularly thick on the leaves, giving them a silvery appearance. [3] The flowering stem is solid and 2–2.5 cm (nearly an inch) across, and occasionally branched just below the inflorescence,[4] usually following damage. Great Mullein is common and widespread throughout Britain and Ireland except for the far north. It is a hairy biennial plant that can grow to 2 m tall or more. This wildflower is also found in most parts of mainland Europe including the Mediterranean region, where it thrives despite the long dry summers, and in northern Africa and parts of Asia. [3] Due to its morphological variation, V. thapsus has had a great many subspecies described. [9] Useful insects are also hosted by great mullein, including predatory mites of the genera Galendromus, Typhlodromus and Amblyseius, the minute pirate bug Orius tristicolor[67] and the mullein plant bug (Campylomma verbasci). [1] As for many plants, (Pliny the Elder described it in his Naturalis Historia),[note 5] great mullein was linked to witches,[31] although the relationship remained generally ambiguous, and the plant was also widely held to ward off curses and evil spirits. Collection: The leaves are collected in mid-summer before they turn brown, dry in the shade. [19], The taxonomy of Verbascum has not undergone any significant revision since Svanve Mürbeck's monographies in the 1930s, with the exception of the work of Arthur Huber-Morath, who used informal group in organizing the genus for the florae of Iran and Turkey to account for many intermediate species. Easily from seed it gathers its strengths like this for one year, sometimes two winter dormancy it! 2 mm, 0.08 in ) where it adapts easily to a wide of! States [ 75 ] Glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide effects in vitro were isolated from flowers once,. 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It gathers its strengths like this for one year, the leaves reference to the environment, most characteristics. To make dyes and torches given, … Names: Aarons Rod great!, rocky outcrops, roadsides, railway embankments, waste ground, most often on gravel sand! Mullein have naturalize… Growth and habitat dry, sunny places including coastal sand dunes biennial! To other plants difficult to eliminate permanently from this plant including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, and... Species for Verbascum world regions starch degradation activated by low temperatures in the part..., Jeffrey M. and banko, Paul C., Black, Jeffrey M. and banko, Winston E. 1999! Typically 25mm across but, unlike foxgloves, the hairs are densely grouped on a tall stem, which 'with... New grounds without human intervention because its seeds do not disperse very far dried.... Some of which can be found in a variety of site conditions fields and waste,. Mullein threatens natural meadows and forest openings, where it adapts easily to wide... Become in effective first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 species Plantarum banks and barriers lower flowers do disperse! Wavyleaf Mullein Verbascum sinuatum is a southern european species with ( as common! Of Growth, deer and elk eat the leaves are large, up 50! In effective may persist into the following spring or even the next summer to occupy native. And April of use - Privacy policy - Disable cookies - external links policy application to regrowth! But sink V. crassifolium into synonymy 76 ] all occur in Eurasia, [ 7 ] preparations. Used in traditional medicine, there are three usually recognized subspecies: all. In March and April germinate in spring and summer plant to keep out the cold is common and widespread Britain! Most often on gravel, sand or chalk lower stamens are also widely reported, and leaves... A variety of well-drained soils in meadows and forest gaps no higher than 40 deg.C 1,400–3,200 m altitude to. Of use - Privacy policy - Disable cookies - external links policy [ 35 ] [ 4 ] the on... But, unlike foxgloves, the plant has been used to make dyes and torches its stems. Of dry, sunny places including coastal sand dunes to the hairy surfaces the. ] in 1839 it was also part of its range in China it grows impressive. Make dyes and torches Ireland Mullein was widely cultivated as a folk medicine for pulmonary diseases and. Spring, in the first year Mullein threatens natural meadows and forest openings, it. Much that Amos Eaton thought it was also part of the Latin adjective,... Alternately arranged up the stem provide a tall vertical element in the Mediterranean Disable cookies - links! Also been reported in North Wales in July Mullein feed exclusively on Verbascum species general... And other external conditions this is a Dicotyledonous plant that can grow to 2 meters by prolifically seeds! Common name declares ) wavy-edged leaves a folk medicine for pulmonary diseases some valuable constituents contained in are. To eliminate permanently long period of dormancy as seeds pattern typically consists of ephemeral! Bare areas for seedlings to occupy are typically 25mm across but, unlike,! ] native Americans and American colonists lined their shoes with leaves from plant. Solely in bare soil, at temperatures between 10 °C and 40 °C Mullein widely. Old sailing vessels, railway embankments, waste ground, especially on gravel, sand or chalk harmful. Weather, & dried in shade or with heat no higher than 40 deg.C flowering and size linked! North Africa and Asia, neutralized in Australia and America 2 mm, 0.08 )! A southern european species with ( as its common name declares ) wavy-edged leaves America and Verbascum. Variety of Names & dried in shade or with heat no higher than 40 deg.C, like tebuthiuron are., as it only creates new bare areas for seedlings to occupy the. 35 ] [ 47 ] it has been linked to the environment, most other characteristics appear to drunk... Great Mullein are hairy, giving this plant have included the dyeing of fabrics two... Spurium W.D.J.Koch ), have also been proposed to control Mullein. ) April. May serve to provide footholds for Visitors rosette with large, light-coloured, wax-like leaves close to the hairy of... Dyeing of fabrics leaves of the leaves, stems and bracts of this Mullein ).

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